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VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP)

VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) is basically configured to maintain the consistent VLAN information on the Cisco Switches which are the members of a same VTP domain. VTP allows the network administrator to CREATE, DELETE and MODIFY (rename) the existing VLANs. With VTP, the VLANs can be added or deleted or modified centrally on one or more switches and these changes will be automatically informed to the other switches which are the members of the same VLAN management Domain (VTP Domain).

Switches can be configured to operate in any of the three modes under VTP:
  1. Server Mode
  2. Client Mode
  3. Transparent Mode

Server Mode Switch:
  • This is the default mode.
  • You CAN Create / Delete or Modify VLANs in this mode
  • Switches in the Server mode perform Synchronization
  • They can Send and Forward the VTP Advertisements
Client Mode Switch:
  • Switches in the Client mode can learn the updates from the server switch.
  • In this mode we CANNOT Create/Delete or Modify VLANs
  • Client mode switches synchronize to the latest updates in the VTP domain so that they maintain the same VLAN information.
  • These switches Send and Forward the VTP Advertisement
Transparent Mode Switch:
  • Switches in the transparent mode can Create / Delete or Modify LOCAL VLANs only
  • These VLANs are created locally and will not be advertised to other switches in the VTP domain
  • Transparent switch will forward VTP advertisements out of trunk ports.
VTP Operation

VTP is configured to maintain the same VLAN information over the switched network. There should be at least one Switch in the server mode. The VLAN information can added, deleted or modified in the server mode switch. Any change in vlans are propagated to all client switches within the same VTP domain. For every change the revision number is incremented by one. VTP advertisements are exchanged every 5 minutes or whenever there is a change.

Must match conditions:
  1. VTP domain must be the same
  2. One switch must be configured in server mode
  3. If a VTP password is used, then the same password must be configured on all switches
  4. All the switch to switch connections should be configured as trunks

VTP Pruning (By default: VTP Pruning is disabled)
VTP Pruning boosts the network bandwidth utility by reducing the unnecessary traffic which is flooded.
Commands for VTP
Switch(config)# vtp mode {Server/ Client / Transparent}

Switch(config)# vtp domain domain-name

Switch(config)# vtp password vtp-password

Switch(config)# vtp pruning

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